The AgriGenomics sector has a long history of tackling some of the world’s most challenging issues. From food security to climate change, Agrigenomics is working to improve lives and livelihoods around the globe. It is the study of the genetics and genomics of plant populations. It encompasses all aspects of plant biology, from the molecular to the ecosystem. Agrigenomics studies include:
0DNA and RNA sequencing – DNA sequencing determines the exact order of nucleotides in a molecule. RNA sequencing is similar but focused on determining the exact order of bases in an RNA molecule instead of DNA. Both types of sequencing can be used to determine gene expression levels across different tissues or strains.
Phenotyping – Phenotyping refers to any measurement that can provide information about a trait (e.g., growth rate or biomass production) or an environmental factor (e.g., temperature). In agrigenomics, phenotyping involves measuring traits such as biomass production, seed volume, and fruit shape. These measurements can provide insight into how genes affect these traits at the molecular level, which can then be used to develop new crop varieties with higher yields or better nutritional content.
Breeding for seed yield and quality – This includes cross-breeding, selection and mutation breeding techniques. These techniques are used to improve yield, protein content, germination rate, dormancy, disease resistance etc.
Breeding for pest resistance – This includes insect-resistant varieties (IRVs), nematode resistant varieties (NRVs) and herbicide-tolerant varieties (HTVs). IRVs are obtained by crossing a parent variety with a male sterile variety or a recessive gene carrier. NRVs are obtained by crossing a parent variety with an NRV donor line, and HTVs are obtained by cross-breeding HTV donors with HTV recipient lines.
Breeding for weed resistance – This involves breeding some weeds resistant to herbicides like glyphosate (e.g., pink rocket), glufosinate ammonium (e.g., purple nutsedge), glufosinate ammonium bromide (e.g., quackgrass).
Plant development growth and nutrition– AgriGenomics involves research on plant development, plant growth, plant nutrition, and plant disease and pest management. It also includes understanding the function of genes and how they work within plants. This can be done by studying genomes (DNA), gene expression in tissues or organs, metabolomes (the set of molecules produced by a cell), or transcriptomes (the set of RNA molecules produced by a cell).
What to Expect from Agrigenomics?
Agroecology seeks to achieve the following:
1) Developing a more holistic approach to farming
2) Raising awareness among farmers about the importance of sustainable agriculture
3) Improving soil fertility
4) Increasing biodiversity in the field through better use of weeds or other biological controls
5) Using biotechnology for pest management
6) Increasing water usage efficiency through drip irrigation systems or other methods to conserve water.
Agrigenomics is a new field of research which aims to study the genetics of plants and crops. This field of knowledge has been enriched by genomics techniques, which can be used to identify genes and proteins involved in plant growth and development. In short, it is the application of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics in agriculture. It is a part of modern agriculture that uses genetic science to improve the quality of crops and foods for humans and animals.